2018-08-13 16:56:22




根据医学杂志编辑国际委员会 (The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, ICMJE)制定的《生物医学杂志投稿统一要求》(The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, 5th Ed., 1997)*, 一篇生物医学科研论文(以下简称“论文”)应包括以下 12 个部分:




4.材料与方法(Materials and Methods )








12.照片和说明(Plates and Explanations)

以上除 7、9、10、11、12 部分因实际情况不需要外,其他各部分是一篇论文必不可少的内容。下面分别介绍对各部分的基本要求,其中“标题”和“摘要”两部分将在以后单元另行讨论。



1) 引言部分

总的要求是:The purpose of an introduction is to bring the reader into the general area of your study and then state the specific area of study (move from the general to the specific). The introduction shows the scope of your investigation efforts.** 即:说明研究的总体范围和目的。


A 背景 – 说明所研究问题的目前总体情况或历史(statement of general area or history of problem);

B 意义 – 说明研究的意义或必要性(statement of importance or need);

C 进展 – 说明有关该问题的先有发现、报告或研究(statement of previous findings, reports or studies)。陈述这部分内容时一般要有引文(citations);

D 目的 – 说明本研究的目的(statement of purpose of current study);

E 范围 – 说明要研究问题的具体范围(statement of specific area of problem to be studied)


In the military, it has been common to treat hyperthermic heat casualties by immersion in ice-containing water. [背景] This method is highly unphysiologic, because the secondary profound cutaneous vasoconstriction shunts blood away from the skin, which greatly slows heat loss from the body core. In addition, shivering occurs soon after immersion, even though core temperature has decreased very little; and this is counterproductive by virtue of muscular heat production. Finally, immersion cooling is extremely unpleasant to the alert patient. [意义]

* 国际上已有 500 家生物医学杂志签约采用这个统一要求。

** 根据 URMSBJ(下同)

Recently Weiner and Khogali [7] have developed a method for cooling hyperthermic patients based on the principle of vaporization of warm water from the body surface by blowing warm dry air over the skin. Their method is an improvement on previous experience with vaporization of cold water from the body surface. [3,4] [进展]

Based on their experience, we have utilized the same physiologic principles in treating heat casualties during a two-week period of desert training (44th MAU,CAX 9-82,MCAGCC,29 Palms, Calif.). In addition, we have applied these principles to normothermic volunteers to study the difference of the method and evaluate untoward effects. [范围、目的]

2) 材料与方法部分

总的要求是:Readers must be able to reproduce your results, evaluate the validity of your results and the soundness of your methods, and follow the logic in the paper. 即:结果的可重演性、方法的可靠性以及前后的逻辑性。


A. 简要说明研究设计(study design / protocol),如:回顾(retrospective / review),前瞻(prospective),临床(clinical),动物(animal),实验(experimental),活体内(in vivo)活体外(in vitro),原位(in situ)随访(follow-up),对照(controlled),随机(random / randomized),双盲交叉(double-blind crossover),人群(population / cohort / migrant),对比(comparative),流行病学(epidemiological)等研究性质;

B. 详细说明研究对象(subject)情况,包括研究人员(student),被研究的人(client)和动物(animal)的性别(sex)、年龄(age),物种(species),品种(breed)生理状态(physiological state); 微生物则要说明其菌株(strain),血清型(serotype)及其他区别特性(identity characteristics);

C. 随机分组分组方法(methods of any random assignment of subjects to groups)和选择标准(criteria for admission to study groups);

D. 详细说明所用的药物(drug),激素(hormone),试剂(reagent)和其他化学品(chemical)的名称、商标(trademark)、生产厂家(manufacturer)及所在地(location);

E. 简要说明测定方法(method of measurement),包括名称,引文和偏差(variations);

F. 简要说明统计学分析方法(method of statistic analysis)

这部分的陈述程序一般为:研究设计 → 研究对象性质 → 处理 / 干预方法 → 测定 / 观察手段 → 统计分析

除指示性说明外,如:“病人资料见表 1”(Data of the patients are shown in Table 1)“材料与方法”和“结果”两部分一律用过去时表达。


A retrospective analysis was conducted of all adults and pediatric patients (age less than 18 years) who received a prolonged course of parenteral nutrition at UCLA Medical Center from January 1976 through December 1983. [研究设计:性质、时间、地点、对象] Criteria for patient selection included a minimum course of a months and development of caculous or acalculous cholecystitis requiring cholecystectomy. From 1976 through 1983 136 patients underwent a prolonged course of TPN at the UCLA Medical Center. Sixty-two of these patients were found to have gallbladder disease. Cholecystectomy was performed in 21 of these patients before the initiation of TPN, and in 35 patients during or after administration of long term TPN. This latter group of 35 patients forms the basis for this report. [选择标准] Specific data regarding age, sex, length of time receiving TPN, underlying disorders, indication for TPN, number of previous operations, preoperative assessment, and the operative biliary procedure, findings and outcomes were all recorded.[研究对象性质]

Patient data are summarized in Table 1. [指示性说明] (以下详细说明所选 35 个研究对象的情况,表格等内容,略)

3) 结果部分

总的要求:This section tells the reader what happened in your work. Remember: let your results speak for themselves and don’t embellish (leave that for the Discussion section), 即:让研究的客观结果说话,不要添枝加叶。


1) 对所获结果进行概述(overview of the results);

2) 说明所获资料或数据的统计意义(statistical significance);

3) 统计支持(statistical support),包括图,表,照片等 (凡用图表表示的内容不再用文字详述)。

注意:不要用模棱两可的词或短语表述结果,如: “ The results tended to be greater than…”, “… showed no promising trends”, “It could / might be inhibited by …”。

4) 讨论部分

总的要求:The author should tell the reader what the results mean by placing them in the context of previous published studies of the problem, 即:与先有研究相比,本研究有何意义。


A. 简要说明研究背景(background)

B. 简要介绍总的发现(general findings);

C. 介绍具体要点(introduction of points)

D. 与现有发现(若有)进行比较(comparison in the context of other studies)

E. 意义(suggested meaning)

F. 结论(conclusion)

G. 前瞻研究(future studies)

结论往往是论文中最长也是最难写的部分,主要原因是作者要对研究结果和发现进行分析、推断、演绎和推理,要求作者具有很强逻辑思维能力和英语文字组织能力。此外,这部分时态比较复杂,要分清实验过程和结果(过去时)与分析意见(确定:现在时;不确定或假设:过去时)的区别;他人研究结果(过去时或现在完成时)与本研究结果(过去时)的区别;普遍适用的结论(现在时)与只适用本研究的结论(过去时)的其别等。因此,对于 however, may, might, could, would, possibly, probably, be likely to 等词(组)的使用以及 we believe (think / consider) that, to our knowledge, in our experience (practice) 等插入语的使用就显得格外重要。


Parenteral nutrition is being used with increasing frequency as a primary source of caloric support in adult and pediatric patients with gastrointestinal problems. Numerous complications have been associated with the administration of TPN, including a significantly increased incidence of gallbladder disease [3-5,7]. The data here suggest that cholecystectomy is often required for the management of symptomatic gallbladder disease in this group of patients, and is associated with significant risks.[说明研究背景,包括意义]

Of the 35 patients who required cholecystectomy for TPN-induced gallbladder disease, operative morbidity and mortality were 54 percent and 11 percent, respectively. Maingot [8] has stated that cholecystectomy “is one of the simplest and safest of the abdominal operations, and is associated with a low operative mortality rate (about 0.5 percent). A review of the pediatric literature suggests that when cholecystectomy is performed in children, the operative morbidity is less than 10 percent, and the mortality is less than 1 percent. [8,9] Glenn [11] has reported a mortality rate of less than 0.1 percent in over 5,000 patients under the age of 50 years who underwent cholecystectomy. The morbidity and mortality observed in our group of receiving long-term TPN, therefore, were far in excess of what would be expected for a population of patients whose mean age was 29 years. [提出本研究主要发现并将其与其他研究发现相比较]

Our data suggest that are specific factors unique to patients who require long-term TPN that contribute to the increased mortality and morbidity associated with cholecystectomy in this select group.[以下,作者用较大篇幅分析了这类病人死亡率和并发症增高的临床、实验室和手术等方面的原因,原文从略]

Based on the results of our studies, we believe that early cholecystectomy is indicated in patients with TPN-induced gallbladder disease. Obviously, all patients with symptomatic disease should undergo cholecystectomy unless there specific medical contraindications. These operations should be performed in a timely, elective fashion because delay may result in the need for urgent surgery and thereby, increase an already high risk. Although recent studies have suggested that cholecystectomy may not be warranted in otherwise healthy patients with asymptomatic gallbladder disease [20], we believe that this axiom does not apply to patients with TPN-induced gallbladder disease. Out data suggest that the natural history of gallbladder disease in patients receiving TPN is considerably different from that of their counterparts not receiving TPN. Based on our findings, we recommend elective cholecystectomy in patients receiving TPN when gallstones first appear. Furthermore, cholecystectomy should be considered, especially in children without stones who are undergoing laparotomy for other reasons. [从对结果的分析及与其他研究的比较得出结论性意见,这是讨论部分最重要的内容] Whether TPN-induced gallstones can be prevented through daily stimulated gallbladder emptying awaits the results of further studies. [前瞻研究]

5) 致谢部分

总的要求:Always get approval of your intention to mention someone in the acknowledgement and approval of the form in which you will present the acknowledgement, 即:致谢词和致谢方式必须征得受谢人或单位的同意。

6) 参考文献

总的要求:Reference styles should be specific to each journal, 既:根据各杂志的具体要求,因为各杂志对参考文献部分的编排顺序和格式不尽统一。现将 URMSBJ 要求的 20 多种参考文献中最常见的 5 种格式列举如下:

1) Vega KJ, Pina I, Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996 Jun 1; 124(11): 980-3. [标准杂志文章]

2) The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical excise stress testing:Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Aust 1996; 164: 282-4. [作者是个组织]

3) Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J 1984; 84: 15. [无作者名]

4) Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel cardiogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 1: 275-82. [某杂志增刊]

5) Browell DA, Lennard TW. Immunologic status of the cancer patient and the effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses. Curr Opin Gen Surg 1993; 325-33 [无期无卷]

7) 插图说明

总的要求:Type or point out legends for illustrations using double spacing, starting on a separate page, 既:插图说明要另页双行打印。当插图中有箭头(arrow)、符号(symbol)、数字(number)或字母(letter)时,要在这部分(不是在插图页上)对其方向、位置等作出非常明确的说明。


总的要求:Design your figures for the appropriate reduction, 即:插图要按杂志的版面大小比例进行压缩;不要把插图拍成照片。


总的要求:A table should be a totally self-contained unit of information, 即:表格要作为一个独立的信息单位另页打印。表格要简明清楚,完整(标题、内容和脚注),即使只有一张表格也要标 Table 1。


总的要求:与 7)、8)部分相同。


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